This week in AP bio we began learning about cells. Although we learned a bit about cells in regular Bio, I forgot nearly all of it so it pretty much felt like we were going over new material.
There are two main types of cells, there are Eukaryotic cells and Prokaryotic. Eukaryotic cells are found in plants and animals, while Prokaryotic are found in bacteria. The Eukaryotic cells found in plants and animals are very similar, but they do have some differences. Plant cells contain a few extra things: The cell wall, Chloroplasts, a central Vacuole, and the Nucleolus. The cell wall is found only in plant cells, but both plant and animal cells have a cell membrane for protection. Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells(Chloroplasts take in sunlight and create ATP and carbs for the cell). Although animal cells don’t contain Chloroplasts, they do contain Mitochondria which are very similar, only they make energy through cellular respiration. The central vacuole is only found in plant cells, but there are vacuoles in animal cells too, only they are much smaller. The nucleolus is found only in plant cells, both plant and animal cells contain a nucleus, the nucleolus sits inside of the nucleus. The main difference is that the Nucleolus is more about creating Ribosomes than storing DNA.
Prokaryotic cells are much more simple then Eukaryotic cells are. The main difference between the two (other than shape) is that Prokaryotic cells don’t contain a real nucleus. The Nucleoid is similar to a Nucleus in the way that they are both responsible for the main storage of DNA in the cell. The main difference is that the Nucleoid is not membrane bound like the Nucleus is, so it is a less structured way of storage.